Links to sites with Organic Molecule models and diagrams

Molecular Model Visualization SW - RasMol Home Page http://www.umass.edu/microbio/rasmol/

Other modelers http://valhalla.chem.udel.edu/3-D.html

Molecular Viewers and Drawing Programs  http://ep.llnl.gov/msds/dvc/viewrs.html

 

 

Molecular Models of Simple Covalent Molecules

Molecular Models from OUC: Acids (organic)

 

 

a) Alcohols (5 structural, 4 Lewis) are compounds which have one (or more) -OH group(s) attached to a carbon.

Some of the alcohols below have isomers in which there is no -OH group. These "non-OH" structures are not alcohols, so do not include them here.

 

 

methanol,  (also called methyl alcohol)

ethanol  (also called ethyl alcohol)

CH3OH

C2H5OH

 propanol,  (also called propyl alcohol)

butanol,(also called butyl alcohol)

C3H7OH

 C4H9OH

b) Ethers (4 structural, 2 Lewis) are substances which contain an oxygen which is itself bonded to two other carbons.
Any substance which contains a C-O-C arrangement in it is considered an ether.

dimethyl ether

methyl ethyl ether

CH3OCH3

CH3OC2H5

 

diethyl ether

 

C2H5OC2H5

 

c) Aldehydes (2 structural, 2 Lewis) are substances that have a double bonded oxygen

connected to a TERMINAL carbon (the end carbon in a chain).

There also MUST be a hydrogen connected to the terminal carbon.

methanal,  (also called formaldehyde)

ethanal,  (also called acetaldehyde)

CH2O

CH3CHO

d) Ketones (1 structural, 1 Lewis) are substances that have an oxygen double bonded to a carbon and the carbon is NOT a terminal carbon.

 acetone,

CH3COCH3

 

e) Acids (2 structural, 2 Lewis) are substances that have two atoms attached to a terminal carbon: a double bonded oxygen AND an -OH group.

Both are attached to the SAME carbon.

methanoic acid (also known as formic acid)

ethanoic acid (also known as acetic acid)

HCOOH

CH3COOH

DAY 1

a) Alkane (7 structural, 3 Lewis) is the category name for a set of compounds which contain

 carbon and hydrogen and ONLY single bonds. An alkane has the general formula of CnH2n + 2. Build the following alkanes:

 methane, CH4

ethane, C2H6

propane, C3H8

butane, C4H10 & pentane, C5H12

hexane, C6H14  & eptane, C7H16

 

Special Note: there are TWO (or more) different ways to make

some structures, starting with the C4H10 formula.

Alkene (3 structural, 2 Lewis) is the category name for a set of compounds which contain carbon and hydrogen, ONE double bond and the rest single bonds. An alkene has the general formula of CnH2n.

ethene (also called ethylene), C2H4

 

propene (also called propylene), C3H6

 

butene (also called butylene), C4H8

 

Special Note: Butene can have the double bond in two different locations.

Alkyne (3 structural, 2 Lewis) is the category name for a set of compounds which contain carbon and hydrogen,

ONE triple bond and the rest single bonds. An alkyne has the general formula of CnH2n - 2. Pronounce alkyne to rhyme with "nine."

 ethyne (also called acetylene), C2H2

 propyne, C3H4

butyne, C4H6

Special Note: Butyne can have the triple

bond in two different locations.

DAY 4

a) Cycloalkanes are compounds which have only carbon and hydrogen with ONLY single bonds. However, there is a twist - the carbons are connected in a circular (it's called a ring) manner. The carbons are NOT in a straight chain, but rather the two "ends" of a straight chain are connected to each other. (Please use the thinner bonds to make the carbon to carbon single bonds in cyclopropane.) Build the following models:

1. cyclopropane, C3H6 A picture of cyclopropane
2. cyclobutane, C4H8 A picture of cyclobutane
3. cyclopentane, C5H10 A picture of cyclopentane
4. cyclohexane, C6H12 A picture of cyclohexane

b) Cycloalkenes are compounds which have only carbon and hydrogen with ONLY one double bond and the rest single bonds. Remember, cyclo- means that the carbons are connected in a ring manner. Do NOT draw the carbons in a straight chain. (Please use the thinner bonds to make the carbon to carbon single bonds in cyclopropene.) Build the following models:

5. cyclopropene, C3H4 A picture of cyclopropene
6. cyclobutene, C4H6 A picture of cyclobutene
7. cyclopentene, C5H8 A picture of cyclopentene
8. cyclohexene, C6H10 A picture of cyclohexene

 

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Copyright 2005 -  S. B. EglI