There are four basic groups of organic molecules: Proteins, Carbohydrates, Lipids, and Nucleic Acids.

These molecules are made by bonding different organic groups to each other in differing orders.

Organic Groups

As they form organic molecules, elements are commonly arranged in organic groups. There are six common organic groups that for smaller units of organic molecules. These are methyl, hydroxyl, carboxyl, amino, sulfydrl, and phosphate groups. By combing these groups in particular arrangements, common organic molecules are formed.

Organic Molecules

There are four basic groups of organic molecules:

Proteins, Carbohydrates, Lipids, and Nucleic Acids.

These molecules are made by bonding different organic groups to each other in differing orders.

All organic molecules contains methyl groups, and most contain hydroxyl groups.

For example, you can describe the basic amino acid, the molecule that makes proteins, as a molecule that contains a methyl group, an amine group, and a carboxyl group, plus one R-group that varies from amino acid to amino acid. Carbohydrates have 3-6 methyl groups, with about the same number of hydroxyl groups, and maybe containing a carboxyl group. Lipids are strings of methyl groups, with one carboxyl group at one end. Nucleic Acids have alternating methyl and amine groups.

 Proteins:

Elements: C, H, O, N, and sometimes S.

Function: Enzymes, structural proteins, storage proteins, transport proteins, hormones, proteins for movement, protection, and toxins.

General Structure

Proteins are made from several amino acids, bonded together. It is the arrangement of the amino acid that forms the primary structure of proteins. The basic amino acid form has a carboxyl group on one end, a methyl group that only has one hydrogen in the middle, and a amino group on the other end. Attached to the methyl group is a R group.

There are 20+ amino acids, each differing only in the composition of the R groups. An R group could be a sulfydrl, another methyl, a string a methyls, rings of carbons, and several other organic groups. Proteins can be either acidic or basic, hydrophilic or hydrophobic. The following table shows 20 amino acids that common in proteins.

 

 

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Copyright 2005 -  S. B. EglI